What are their commonalities, diagnostics, biomedical, clinical and Historical Features?
Depression Disorder is symptoms that affect the patient emotionally, i.e., feeling hopeless, cognitively, i.e., difficulty making decisions or concentrating, and physically, i.e., trouble falling asleep or sleeping too much.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a condition manifested by witnessing or participating in a traumatic event, i.e., a car crash or being in the military.
Bi-Polar Disease is a disease whose symptoms are divided into the Depressive phase and the Manic Phases.
Biomedical factors: What does it means to characterize the disorders as "diseases of the nervous system and the body."
Depression Disorder: "Two major areas of the brain—the hippocampus (seat of memory) and the cortex (the thinking part of the brain)— undergo shrinkage. Both the size of nerve cells and the number of their connections with other neurons are reduced. At the same time, depressive behavior is linked to overactivation of the hypothalamus, which coordinates the stress response, and overactivity of the amygdala, which signals threat and generates negative emotions." (Psychology Today, n.d.)
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: "The decreased levels of cortisol, the increased responsiveness of glucocorticoid receptors, the increased sensitivity of the HPA negative feedback inhibition and its progressive sensitization are the neuroendocrine alterations specifically associated with the development of PTSD." (Birmes, P. et al., 2000)
Bipolar Disorder: Causes: The exact cause of the bipolar disorder is unknown, but several factors may be involved, such as: -Biological differences. People with bipolar disorder appear to have physical changes in their brains. The significance of these changes is still uncertain but may eventually help pinpoint causes. -Genetics. Bipolar disorder is more common in people who have a first-degree relative, such as a sibling or parent, with the condition. Researchers are trying to find genes that may be involved in causing bipolar disorder. (Mayo Clinic, n.d.)
-In review: Diseases of the nervous system and the body are characterized by biomedical factors because, for most, mental conditions start with chemical or neurological changes in the brain.
Clinical factors: Describe the similarities between the disorders selected. In what ways might these similarities impact diagnosis and treatment?
The shared similarities include :
-Lack of interest of family and society
-There are similar factors with these diseases. A Clinician may have difficulty if he/she does not use the DSM-5 or the client's clinical, social, cultural, and physical state.
Historical factors: In what ways did deinstitutionalization impacted patient rights, levels of care, and access to treatment of the disorders over time.
Where I live, the last institution closed. Deinstitutionalization left many mentally ill people with nowhere to go. I am sure they had placement when they left. Still, I can only share with you that this city has the most significant number of homeless and housed mentally ill people per capita without knowing the actual story. I believe that from last I knew, the numbers have changed. Lack of services, including counseling, financial assistance, education, and medical care, will negatively affect them.
"The problems caused by deinstitutionalization appear to be due, in no small part, to the failure of society to develop ways to fill the gaps in mental health services in the community." (Hooley et al., 2020)
The government has failed the Mentally ill by the lack of state funding, directly affecting the Department of Human Services. These services provide much-needed services to the mentally ill.
Sociocultural factors: Describe the social and cultural changes that have caused shifts in the public's perception of the disorders over time.
Sociocultural factors that caused the public's perception to change include the education surrounding the mentally ill. Every culture has its perception of handling its seemingly "odd" behaviors. Every culture has its justification for doing right by the people with mental illness. Education, awareness, and acceptance keep pushing forward to find broader ways to help the mentally ill.
One selected disorder:
Consider the mind-body connection: Describe whether a discernible bidirectional relationship exists between the disorder and physical illness. If so, explain.
Depression affects one physically as well as mentally. It can also affect your health by eating poorly or nothing at all or having a lack of sleep. Eating poorly and lack of sleep affects your immune system response and places you at a higher risk of getting an infection.
Consider the impact of language and messaging: Describe how the words we use (e.g., in casual conversation, in media communications) when discussing a disorder influence our willingness or ability to manage the disorder.
Communication plays a large part in the healing process. Without support, i.e., such as counseling or support from family and friends and refusing to talk about the disorder, Depression will inevitably worsen. We use such words as "you" instead of "can you." This example puts the power back in the person's control.
Consider the effect of lifestyle choices: Describe the small but significant changes in attitude/behavior we can make that could help us to manage the symptoms of the disorder.
Exercise, healthy eating, yoga, listening to motivational speeches on social media, and reading self-help books about Depression. The best that they can do for themselves first is to recognize the symptoms. Find the little things used to make them happy, such as spending time with their family, taking day trips, shopping, finding a hobby, and pet therapy.